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Interesting facts about octopuses

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We found 44 interesting facts about octopuses

Very smart animals with amazing abilities.


Octopuses are cephalopods with eight arms.


Currently, about 300 species of octopuses have been identified.


The first octopuses appeared on Earth about 323 million years ago.


The oldest known octopus is Polsepia, who lived 296 million years ago.

Due to the soft bodies of these organisms, not many octopus fossils have been discovered.


Octopuses live in every ocean.

They live in different habitats depending on the species. Some octopuses live in the depths of the ocean and can be found at depths of up to 1000 meters. Others live on coral reefs or shallow tidal pools.


Most octopuses have excellent eyesight.

Octopuses have two eyes, one on each symmetrical part of the body. Color discrimination in these animals varies depending on the species.


There are species of octopuses that are practically blind.

Individuals with this feature are, for example, representatives of the species Cirrothauma murrayi.


There are round suckers on the inner surface of the octopus's arms. They use the phenomenon of adhesion to grasp or manipulate objects.


Both octopuses and cuttlefish have the highest brain-to-body mass ratios of any invertebrate.


2/3 of the octopus' neurons are located in the nerves of the animal's arms.

The motor skills of these cephalopods are controlled not by the brain, but by their unique nervous system located in the legs.


Octopuses have 3 hearts.

Their circulatory system is a closed system with one systemic (main) heart, which pumps blood throughout the animal's body, and two gill hearts, which serve to pump blood through the gills. The systemic heart of octopuses consists of one ventricle and two atria.


During swimming, the systemic or main heart stops working. Because of this, the octopus quickly gets tired, and therefore the organisms prefer to move along the bottom with the help of their hands.


Octopuses have a so-called siphon, that is, an organ responsible for gas exchange, removal of metabolic products and secretion of ink.


Octopuses swim by expelling pressurized water through a siphon.


Octopuses can also breathe through their skin, which is very thin. According to research, while an octopus is resting, up to 41% of its oxygen needs can be met through skin respiration.


The octopus's mouth contains a grater called the radula.

The radula consists of chitin and its task is to crush food that enters the mouth.


The octopus's mouth begins with a beak typical of these animals.


Most octopuses are predators.

They feed mainly on crustaceans and polychaetes, although they do not disdain other mollusks. The octopus menu also includes shrimp and fish.


The giant octopus feeds mainly on mussels and crabs.


When hunting crustaceans, octopuses paralyze them with saliva and then crush them with their beaks.


The protein hemocyanin is responsible for the blue color of octopus blood.


An analogue of the kidneys in octopuses are the so-called nephridia.


Octopuses have what is called a black pouch.

This organ stores sepia produced by a nearby gland. Octopuses use sepia to disorient predators during escape. They then spray a thick, distinctive black stain.


Most octopuses live only a few months, usually six months.

After hatching, octopuses die of starvation, since after the breeding period the digestive glands in these animals are deactivated.


The lifespan of octopuses is directly affected by the visual gland.

During research on octopuses, their optic glands were removed, as a result, adults stopped protecting their offspring, began to eat again, and their life expectancy increased significantly.


Octopuses are dioecious.


During mating season, octopuses can change skin color to signal to their partner that they want to mate.


Once fertilized, female octopuses can lay between 10 and 70 eggs.

They place them in rock crevices in the form of special strings of eggs. The eggs are then guarded for approximately 160 days, after which the baby octopuses hatch. In colder waters, octopus eggs can take up to 10 months to develop.


Most octopuses hatch from their eggs as paralarvae and function as plankton for the first weeks or months. These small octopuses feed on zooplankton, arthropod larvae or copepods.


Octopuses are very smart. Studies on these animals have revealed the presence of both short-term and long-term memory.


Each octopus must gain experience on its own, because immediately after hatching they are left by their parents.


The largest representative of octopuses is the Giant Octopus.

It was first described in 1910. The largest octopus of this species ever seen weighed 272 kilograms and had an arm span of 9,6 meters. The giant octopus is also one of the longest living octopuses, it can live up to 5 years.


The smallest octopus in the world is Octopus wolfi. Representatives of this species reach about 2,5 cm in length and weigh 1 gram.


Some octopuses use the phenomenon of bioluminescence to attract prey. To do this, they use organs called photophores, which are located inside the suckers.


Since ancient times, octopuses have been considered sea monsters. They appear in Norse mythology as the Kraken or the Gorgons in Ancient Greece.


Most octopuses lead a solitary lifestyle, but there are also species that live in larger communities.


All octopuses are poisonous animals, but only members of the genus Hapalochlaena have venom that can kill humans.


Some types of octopuses, when attacked by a predator, can drop an arm that crawls along the bottom to distract the predator.


Octopuses of the species Thaumoctopus mimicus can use their flexible body and changing skin color to resemble other, more dangerous marine animals.


Octopuses of the species Amphioctopus Marginatus collect coconut shells and use them to build their shelters.


Octopuses can camouflage themselves.

Thanks to special skin cells, they can adapt their skin color to their environment, like chameleons. Camouflage is used by these animals both for hunting and for hiding from predators.


In the Mediterranean and coastal areas of Asia, octopuses are food for humans.


According to the Hawaiian creation myth, the modern cosmos is the last of the previous universes to rise from the rubble, and octopuses are the only survivors from the previous universe.


Aritotle had already observed octopuses. He noticed that they had the ability to change skin color and identified their genitals.

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