Interesting facts about penguins

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We found 24 interesting facts about penguins

Stated Southerners

Penguins are marine species that inhabit the cold seas of the Southern Hemisphere. They are most numerous around Antarctica and off the coast of South America.

These birds form huge colonies that can contain up to a million individuals.


Penguins may have lived on Earth since the time of the dinosaurs.

The oldest penguins discovered are species of the genus Vaimanu. They date back to the early Paleocene, approximately 61 million years ago. They were painted differently than modern ones and were larger in size.

The discovered remains of one of the representatives of this genus indicate that these birds were about 150 cm tall.

The picture shows the species Waimanu Manneringi, which lived about 26 million years ago. Nobu Tamura / CC BY 3.0

The discovery of the Waimanu genus suggests that the first penguins may have appeared in the world immediately after the extinction of the dinosaurs, or even coexisted with them.


There are 18 species of these flightless birds.

Five of them are endangered and six are vulnerable to extinction.

According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, most The immediate threat to penguins is rapidly changing ocean a result of climate change.

If the rate of climate change on Earth does not slow down, only those who adapt the fastest to the changes will survive.


Penguins reach different sizes depending on the species.

The biggest ones emperor penguins weighing up to 45 kilograms and height up to 130 centimeters.

The smallest species of penguin is Little penguin, weighing about 1,5 kilograms and measuring only 30 - 35 centimeters.


Penguins are the only birds that maintain an upright body position.

On land, they walk upright or glide on their stomachs, pushing off with strong, well-placed legs.


They are perfectly adapted to life in water.

At the cost of losing the ability to fly, penguins developed strong wings that served as flippers. They feel great in the water the way they swim resembles the flight of birds.

Their feathers are capable... holding air, which makes it easier for them to swim and prevents the loss of body temperature in cold water.

Although penguins cannot fly, they also need wings when they leave the water. With their help maintain balance in an upright position.


The body of penguins is covered with scaly feathers.

A large number of feathers overlapping each other and a thick layer of fat under the skin protect birds from heat loss. Feathers grow over the entire surface of the skin and lack apteria, which distinguishes them from other bird species. There are up to 2 feathers per cm15 of the body. Birds lubricate their feathers by lubricating them with secretions from the sacral gland.


Although we associate them with snow and ice, they can also be found in much warmer places.

Penguins live on the coast of southern Africa, the Galapagos Islands and the forests of New Zealand.


Their eyes are adapted to the aquatic environment.

Underwater, they are used to search for prey and early detection of predators. It is assumed that penguins become myopic after leaving the water, but this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed by research.


Penguins lay two eggs.

The exceptions are the emperor penguin and king penguin.which lay one egg each. The eggs hatch on the legs, under abdominal fat. While incubating eggs, the penguin does not eat for up to several weeks. In some penguin species, the male incubates the eggs. After the chicks hatch, they are cared for by both parents (about 2 months).


Penguins lose feathers once a year.

The feathers grow back within a few weeks. At this time, the birds remain on land.


Penguins have fairly well-developed hearing.

Mainly used for adults. detection young and young to find parents in crowded colonies.


They feed on animal food: fish, crustaceans, cephalopods.

They also swallow rocks to better grind their food, since they have no teeth. Rocks also allow them to dive deeper by increasing their body mass.


In one dive, a penguin can catch up to 30 fish.

Penguin tongues have soft spines that allow them to better hold the food they catch.


They are very social individuals.

They feel best in a group, eating, playing and hanging out together. The volcanic Zavadovsky Island in the Southern Ocean is home to one of the world's largest colonies of Arctic penguins, numbering around a million pairs.


The fastest swimmers are the Gentoo penguins.

They can reach speed up to 36 kilometers per hour. They live in the ocean waters between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula and in coastal areas of western Antarctica.

The Gentoo Penguin is the third largest penguin in the world. Ben Tubby / Flickr / CC BY 2.0

Adults reach a body length of 51 to 90 centimeters and can weigh up to 8,5 kilograms. They feed mainly on crustaceans, with fish and cephalopods making up a few percent of their diet.

The system distribution was created in honor of these penguins. Linux.

To learn more …


Penguins feel best in water; they swim the fastest and dive the deepest of all birds.

An emperor penguin can spend about 30 minutes underwater. At the same time, it can descend to the greatest depth of all species living on Earth - 564 m (this record result was recorded).


Penguins live from three to eight years.

Most often they die when hunted by a predator, because the average life expectancy... captivity ranges from fifteen to even twenty years.

There were also people who lived to much older ages.


They may fall prey to killer whales, sea lions or leopard seals.

To protect themselves from attack, they acquired a characteristic black and white coloration. For predators hiding underwater their white bellies blend into the reflective surface. Dark color on the back they are difficult to see from above.


There are only two species of penguins in Antarctica.

These white-eyed penguins (adeli) and emperor penguins. These two species are closely related to Antarctica. In addition to them, they also appear during the breeding season at the very end of the Antarctic Peninsula. penguin in mask, Gentoo Penguin и golden-crested penguin

Most penguins live in the cooler ocean waters of the Southern Hemisphere.


Almost all penguins live in the southern hemisphere.

But Equatorial penguinwho lives exclusively Galapagos Islands so in the northern hemisphere, all other species live and reproduce in the southern hemisphere.

The equatorial penguin lives on the rocky shores of the western part of the Galapagos Islands. Charles J. Sharp / CC BY-SA 3.0

The equatorial penguin is a species of small penguin, reaching a height of 50 centimeters and a weight of 2,5 to 4,5 kilograms. About 90% of this species live on one island - Fernandina belonging to Ecuador.


Penguins have a special suprafrontal gland to filter salt water.


The layer of fat under the skin of a penguin can reach several centimeters.


One in 50 penguins is born brown.

This mutation is called Isabellinism. Unfortunately, this mutation has unpleasant consequences. Penguins with this disease live shorter lives because more noticeable to predators.

Although the photo may be slightly blurry, it gives a good idea of ​​what penguins with this mutation look like. Peyre / Public domain

This feature is not passed on because penguins often wear this color. dropped by partners during the course.


An albino penguin was born at the Gdansk Zoo.

This is probably the only zoo in the world that has an albino penguin. Zoo staff named their unusual pet Kokosanka.

Coconut woman poses for a photo on the catwalk. Source: Gdańsk Zoo.

The penguin hatched on December 12, 2018. This is a representative of the Cape penguin species. If you want to see this unique animal in person, we invite you to visit the Gdańsk Zoo.

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